Script to find UUID of RDM Luns in Hyper-V

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Run the below command in the Powershell to get the ouput in the text format.

get-cluster ‘custername’ | Get-VM | Get-HardDisk -DiskType “RawPhysical”,”RawVirtual” | Select Parent,Name,DiskType,ScsiCanonicalName,DeviceName | fl | Out-File –FilePath C:\temp\RDM-list.txt

ZCP – Zerto Certified Professional – ZCP Certification Exam Q and A

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ZCP Certification Exam

Passing mark is atleast 75%, answers are highlighted in bold.

1) After performing a failover operation (Test, Live, Move) Zerto allows you to generate a report detailing the steps performed during the operation.

  • True
  • False

2) VPGs can only protect virtual machines running Mac OS X or Windows XP and newer.

  • True
  • False

3) To recover a single VPG after a corrupted database, which of these operations would be most effective?

  • Journal file-level restore
  • Offsite clone
  • Live failover
  • Backup restore

4) ZVR’s Journal is stored where?

  • Production/source site
  • Recovery/target site
  • Both
  • Neither

5) During a VPG sync, which of the following operations can be performed? Select all that apply.

  • Add a VM to the group
  • Remove a VM from the group
  • Change length of Journal history for the group
  • Change hard limit of Journal size for the group

6) Offsite Backups for a VPG should be scheduled to run at least every four hours, but no more than every 12 hours.

  • True
  • False

7) How much memory can be allocated to a Virtual Replication Appliance?

  • 1 GB
  • 3 GB
  • Between 1-16 GB
  • Between 2-8 GB

8) If both sites (target/recovery and source/production) are up, healthy, and accessible, which VPG-level operation is most appropriate?

  • Live Failover
  • Move/migration
  • Offsite Clone
  • JFLR

9) What basic method does ZVR use to protect data and applications?

  • VM-level continuous replication
  • Scheduled and on-demand snapshots
  • Daily delta syncs
  • Guest/agent-based replication

10) ZVR cannot function across different hypervisors, storage configurations, or host OS versions.

  • True
  • False

11) What must be true for a Move operation to be effective? Select all that apply.

  • Both source (or production) and target (recovery) sites are up and accessible
  • Each VM in the VPG has an up-to-date Journal
  • The very latest copy of the data is required
  • One of the site’s hosts has either a new VRA installed or an upgraded VRA

12) A fully configured ZVM on each paired site—e.g. production and recovery—requires which of the following? Select all that apply.

  • Adding a site-specific license under Site Settings
  • Creating matching VPGs on each site
  • Installing VRAs on that site’s host(s)

13) Enabling auto-commit will always provide 30 minutes to validate the results of a failover before committing the changes.

  • True
  • False

14) ZVR has built-in support for scheduled bandwidth throttling that can work with or without other hardware/software also managing this.

  • True
  • False

15) What characterizes the kinds of VMs you should group together in the same VPG?

  • Each are using the same datastore or volume for storage
  • They need to maintain consistency with each other and all be failed over or recovered together
  • All are running both the same OS and same hypervisor
  • The journal is sized the same on each VM

16) Adding a VM to an existing VPG means… (Select all that apply)

  • The entire VPG will be re-synchronized to ensure group consistency
  • The VPG protection will need to be paused before adding the additional VM
  • A checkpoint will be automatically inserted in the Journal prior to adding the VM
  • A Live Failover cannot be executed until the updated VPG is fully synchronized

17) What is the Journal?

  • Audit trail to track which operations were performed and when
  • Series of checkpoints tracking block-level changes within VMs
  • Detailed list of every snapshot, whether automatic or manually generated snapshots
  • Compliance record of each VPG’s replication status at any given checkpoint

18) The ZVR installer includes which of the following components? Select all that apply.

  • Local copies of the ZVR documentation specific to your hypervisor
  • One license key for each site you’ll use with Zerto
  • Microsoft .NET Framework in case the machine does not already have it installed
  • VRA template for a custom-designed Zerto VM
  • A Virtual Backup Appliance (VBA) for managing backups

19) If you needed to test the failover of an entire virtualized datacenter, what best practices should be followed? Select all that apply.

  • Perform the test during off hours or on the weekend
  • Clone the VPGs you want to test prior to starting the failover test
  • Use an isolated/fenced network for testing
  • Always stop the test from within ZVM and not your hypervisor’s management console(s)
  • Provision a sandbox where ZVR can deploy the test VMs

20) What is a Virtual Replication Appliance?

  • Lightweight agent installed on each VM in a protection group
  • Snapshot engine that powers the ZVR Journal
  • Custom Linux VM performing continuous replication
  • A hypervisor plugin/add-on to manage cross-hypervisor replication

21) ZVR 4.5 allows for Journal Compression to increase storage capacity for journal history.

  • True
  • False

22) If the hypervisor service/admin account provided during installation is incorrect, ZVR will still proceed with the installation and ask for re-validation after installation is complete.

  • True
  • False

23) When configuring a Failover Test network, what is Zerto’s recommended best practice?

  • Test and production network should be the same to ensure consistency
  • Test network should be isolated/fenced
  • The ZVM should be on a test network
  • Pause replication on production network when using a test network during a test

24) What operating system is running on the VRA virtual machine?

  • Ubuntu
  • Debian
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux
  • Windows Server 2012

25) What VPG configuration option would give you the ability to stagger when and how your protected VMs start?

  • Bandwidth Throttling
  • Re-IP
  • Pre/Post Operation Scripting
  • Boot Order Groups



Zerto Certified Professional Training

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zcp_badge_red_360Are you a Master of Disaster? Join the ranks of masters worldwide who have taken our Zerto Certified Professional (ZCP) training and are now using Zerto to minimize data loss and maximize uptime. Zerto has just released our business continuity certification, ZCP Basic for Zerto Virtual Replication (ZVR) 4.5, the latest version of Zerto’s award-winning business continuity software.

ZCP Basic 4.5 is a free introductory technical course that is self-paced and easily accessible online via the MyZerto platform. If you don’t already have an account, sign-up for one here and then log-in to start your training.

The latest ZCP course includes training on some of our exciting new features such as Journal File-Level Restore, ZVR 4.5’s game-changing feature that lets you recover specific folders or simply one single file that was accidentally deleted.

If you are a newbie though, don’t worry, ZCP 4.5 still covers all the tools you need to reach Master of Disaster status, including: ZVR installation, configuration, and key recovery operations such as test & live failovers.

The e-learning in ZCP Basic 4.5 is estimated to take around 1 hour and 15 minutes, and there is a certification exam at the end. Passing the exam with 75% or higher awards you the ZCP Basic business continuity certification—and officially recognizes you as a Master of Disaster, ready to face any outage and manage your IT environment with confidence.

Additionally Zerto is excited to announce that they are taking our training to the next level! This May, at ZertoCON, they will be offering for the first time ever the ZCP Advanced certification exam! So for those of you who are interested in really putting your skills to the test, and looking for official proof of your elite BC/DR status, sign up for ZertoCON now.

(Please note at this time that ZCP is only available to Zerto customers and partners)

– See more at:

2015 in review

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The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2015 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 6,600 times in 2015. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 6 trips to carry that many people.

Click here to see the complete report.

How to fix corrupt image profile issues on an ESXi host?

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Recently I happen to deal with such an issue while installing the patches on an ESXi host using vSphere Update Manager. This issue is rare and will occur if you interrupt the patches remediation task abruptly, in my case thanks to one of my colleague.

I will mention the steps which helped me to recover the image profile for the ESXi host.

Issue: No image profile is found on the host or image profile is empty. In my case image profile shows Unknown – no profile defined

image profile issue


This issue has been seen on systems where the image database file, imgdb.tgz, is corrupt. An image profile is required to install or remove VIBs.

How to confirm if you are proceed with the mentioned solution:

To confirm that the imgdb.tgz file is corrupt:

Connect to the ESXi host via an SSH session.

Change directory to /vmfs/volumes by cd /vmfs/volumes

Search for the imgdb.tgz file: find * | grep imgdb.tgz


Note: This command normally results in two matches. For example:




Run this command on each match:

ls -l match_result

For example:

ls -l 0ca01e7f-cc1ea1af-bda0-1fe646c5ceea/imgdb.tgz

-rwx——   1 root root  26393 Jul 20 19:28 0ca01e7f-cc1ea1af-bda0-1fe646c5ceea/imgdb.tgz


The default size for the imgdb.tgz file is approximately 26 KB. If one of the files is only a couple of bytes, it indicates that the file is corrupt.


There are 2 ways you can fix this issue. To work around this issue, perform one of these options:

1. Rebuild the ESXi host


2. Copy an imgdb.tgz file from a known good ESXi host to the host having the issue


You may rebuilt if you want but that is not what you are looking for!

Now let us see how we can proceed with the second option:


To copy the imgdb.tgz file from a known good ESXi host perform the following:

On the working ESXi host, copy a good copy of imgdb.tgz by perform the following

cp /bootbank/imgdb.tgz /vmfs/volumes/<shared-LUN>

On the corrupt host, copy the good copy of the imgdb.tgz to /tmp:

cp /vmfs/volumes/<shared LUN>/imgdb.tgz /tmp

cd /tmp

tar -xzf imgdb.tgz

Copy the good profile files to the profile directory:

cp /tmp/var/db/esximg/profiles/* /var/db/esximg/profiles/

Copy the good VIBs to the VIB repository:

cp /tmp/var/db/esximg/vibs/* /var/db/esximg/vibs/

Remove the corrupt imgdb.tgz from the bootbank:

rm /bootbank/imgdb.tgz

Move the good copy of imgdb.tgz into the bootbank:

cp /tmp/imgdb.tgz /bootbank/

Backup configuration changes made:


Restart the ESXi host, Attempt to install or patch the host again using vSphere Update Manager.

How to fix Lost connectivity to the device backing the boot filesystem on an ESXi host?

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Error: Lost connectivity to the device naa.60xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx backing the boot filesystem /vmfs/devices/disks/naa.60xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. As a result, host configuration changes will not be saved to persistent storage.

If we lose connectivity to the NIC that runs the boot LUN (switch reboot, cable disconnect, etc.), we will see the above error. This error is being displayed because connectivity is lost and the iSCSI boot does not support Multi pathing, which means that if connectivity is lost between the Storage Processor (SP) on the VNXe and the NIC on the host, the host can no longer access its boot lun and cannot write logs etc.

There is no impact as whole ESXi OS is loaded into memory so there is no outage for the VMs. Once the connectivity is restored the host can access the storage again. The error was for the fact that the error does not clear automatically.

The simplest solution is to put the host into maintenance mode, reboot it and the problem is solved Or restart the Management Agents on the ESXi host.

Check How to restart Management agents on ESXi host

How to rename the local administrator with Group Policy

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To improve security in your Active Directory domain, you should rename the administrator account because this lowers the risk of brute force attacks. Renaming the administrator account and resetting its password on all computers in your AD domain can be easily done via Group Policy.

Open the Active Directory Group Policy Management console, create a new GPO, and link it to your desired OU. Of course, you can also work with an existing GPO.

Linking a GPO to an OU

Right-click the new GPO or an existing GPO and select Edit. This will launch the Group Policy editor. Now, browse to the following Group Policy setting: Computer Configuration > Preferences > Control Panel Settings > Local Users and Groups.

Renaming the administrator account

As you can see in the screenshot above, right-click Local Users and Groups and then navigate toNew > Local User.

On the next screen, you select the user name you would like to use for the administrator account:

Selecting the user name

Select the following:

Action – Select Update.

User name – Select Administrator (built-in).

Rename to – Enter the new user name.

Full name – Enter your desired name.

Description – Add a description (optional).

Password – Set a new password (optional).

Check boxes – Verify that the check boxes comply with your company policies.

The GPO is now configured and can be deployed in your network. The refresh interval for computer settings is 90 minutes. If you want to apply the GPO immediately on a client computer, open a command prompt and type gpupdate /force at the command line.

Alternatively, you can reboot the computer. If you are finding that a computer isn’t applying the policy, simply run gpresult /r at a command line to see whether your new GPO is listed:

 Checking if the GPO has been applied

If it’s not listed or if you see a permission error message, go back to Active Directory Users and Computers and check the OU to which you have the policy applied. Also check whether the computer contains that OU. Perhaps the computer is in a different OU and therefore doesn’t pick up the policy.

Also check the GPO settings. In the Security Filtering section, ensure that the GPO is applied to Authenticated Users; in the Links section, verify that the correct OU is linked to the GPO :

GPO security filtering

If the policy is still not applied to some of your computers and you have checked all the above, then your domain controllers might not replicate the GPO properly.